Neodymium magnets invented in the early 1980s by General Motors (GM) and Sumitomo Special Metals. Neodymium magnets (also known as NdFeB; NIB or Neo magnets) are the strongest type of permanent magnets commercially available. These neodymium magnets are very strong; cheap, and small. Neodymium magnets made numerous advances in electric motors; audio systems and data storing.
These super strong magnets are made of an alloy (NIB—neodymium); boron and iron. The arrangement of an electron in these materials lets them develop strong magnetic fields. The magnetic field is very strong; so we need small amounts of rare earth elements to make a small powerful magnet.
The chemical composition of neodymium magnets is Nd2Fe14B. This crystal structure has exceptionally high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This anisotropy gives the compound the potential to have high coercivity. The crystal also has a high saturation magnetization and typically 1.3teslas. Therefore the maximum energy density is proportional to Js2. This neodymium magnetic phase has the potential for storing large amounts of magnetic energy. The magnetic properties of these powerful magnets depend on the microstructure; alloy composition; and manufacturing technique which is used by the manufacturer.
The neodymium magnets are mainly used in audio systems and electric motors; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); loudspeakers and headphones; benchtop NMR spectrometers; mechanical e-cigarette firing switches; magnetic bearings and couplings; head actuators for computer hard disks; magnetic guitar pickups; servomotors; spindle and stepper motors; cordless tools; drive motors for hybrid and electric vehicles; electric generators for wind turbines; lifting and compressor motors; synchronous motors; electrical power steering; magnetic jewelry clasps; sport parachute equipment; Linx anti-reflux system; and children’s magnetic building sets.